Orthorexia Nervosa: Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment

Uncover the impact of Orthorexia Nervosa on health. Learn the definition, signs, and treatment options for a healthier relationship with food.

February 1, 2024

Understanding Orthorexia Nervosa

In order to address the topic of orthorexia nervosa, it is important to first gain a clear understanding of what it entails. This section will explore the definition of orthorexia nervosa, the fine line between healthy eating and orthorexia nervosa, as well as its prevalence and impact on health.

What is Orthorexia Nervosa?

Orthorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by an obsessive and excessive preoccupation with eating what is perceived to be "healthy" or "clean" foods. The term "orthorexia" is derived from the Greek words "ortho," meaning "correct" or "right," and "orexis," meaning "appetite" or "desire to eat." Individuals with orthorexia nervosa often develop strict and rigid dietary rules, believing that adhering to these rules will lead to optimal health and well-being.

Unlike other eating disorders such as anorexia or bulimia, orthorexia nervosa is not primarily driven by a desire for weight loss or body image concerns. Instead, it is characterized by an intense fixation on the quality and purity of food, as well as the belief that certain foods are inherently good or bad. This obsession with "clean" eating can start off as a well-intentioned pursuit of better health but can gradually develop into a harmful and restrictive pattern of eating.

The Fine Line: Healthy Eating vs. Orthorexia Nervosa

It is important to note the distinction between healthy eating and orthorexia nervosa. While maintaining a balanced and nutritious diet is generally a positive endeavor, orthorexia nervosa takes this to an extreme. The key difference lies in the impact on an individual's overall well-being and quality of life. While healthy eating promotes physical and mental health, orthorexia nervosa can lead to a detrimental obsession and negatively impact a person's social interactions, psychological well-being, and overall nutritional status.

Prevalence and Impact on Health

Orthorexia nervosa is a relatively new concept, and research on its prevalence is limited. However, studies suggest that the prevalence of orthorexia nervosa may be increasing, particularly in Western societies where an emphasis on healthy eating is prevalent. It is important to note that the true prevalence of orthorexia nervosa remains uncertain, as it is not yet recognized as an official diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).

The impact of orthorexia nervosa on an individual's health can be significant. The excessive dietary restrictions and preoccupation with food quality can lead to nutritional deficiencies, compromised immune function, and overall poor physical health. Additionally, the strict rules and rigidity associated with orthorexia nervosa can cause significant psychological distress, anxiety, and social isolation.

Understanding the definition and impact of orthorexia nervosa is crucial in recognizing the signs and symptoms of this disorder. In the following sections, we will delve deeper into the various signs, symptoms, risk factors, and treatment approaches associated with orthorexia nervosa.

Signs and Symptoms

Recognizing the signs and symptoms of orthorexia nervosa is essential for early identification and intervention. This section will cover the key indicators of this disorder, including an obsession with "healthy" eating, emotional and behavioral signs, as well as physical signs and consequences.

Obsession with "Healthy" Eating

One of the primary signs of orthorexia nervosa is an obsession with "healthy" eating. Individuals with this disorder develop an extreme fixation on consuming only pure, clean, and nutritious foods. They may become preoccupied with the quality, purity, and origin of the foods they consume. The pursuit of dietary perfection can become a central focus in their lives, often leading to a rigid set of self-imposed dietary rules. This obsession can significantly impact their overall well-being and social interactions.

Emotional and Behavioral Signs

Orthorexia nervosa is accompanied by various emotional and behavioral signs. These can include:

  • Anxiety and Distress: An individual with orthorexia nervosa may experience high levels of anxiety and distress when faced with situations that challenge their strict dietary rules. They may feel anxious or guilty about deviating from their self-imposed food restrictions.
  • Social Isolation: The intense focus on "healthy" eating can lead to social isolation. Individuals with orthorexia nervosa may avoid social gatherings or events that involve food, as they fear the lack of control over the food choices available.
  • Irrational Food Rules: The development of rigid and irrational food rules is common in orthorexia nervosa. These rules may include avoiding entire food groups, restricting specific ingredients, or following strict eating rituals.
  • Compulsive Behavior: Some individuals may exhibit compulsive behaviors related to food preparation, such as spending excessive time planning, shopping for, and preparing meals. They may also spend significant amounts of time researching nutritional information and scrutinizing food labels.

Physical Signs and Consequences

Orthorexia nervosa can manifest itself in various physical signs and consequences. These can include:

  • Nutritional Deficiencies: Due to the restrictive nature of their diets, individuals with orthorexia nervosa may suffer from nutritional deficiencies. This can lead to inadequate intake of essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals, resulting in fatigue, weakness, and compromised immune function.
  • Weight Loss or Gain: Depending on an individual's specific behaviors and dietary restrictions, orthorexia nervosa can lead to significant weight loss or weight gain. This can occur as a result of restricted caloric intake, elimination of entire food groups, or the excessive consumption of "clean" foods.
  • Digestive Issues: The strict dietary rules associated with orthorexia nervosa can lead to digestive issues such as bloating, constipation, or other gastrointestinal disturbances. The elimination of certain foods or food groups can disrupt the natural balance of the digestive system.
  • Psychological Distress: Orthorexia nervosa can take a toll on an individual's mental health. The constant worry and preoccupation with food and the fear of deviating from their self-imposed rules can lead to anxiety, depression, and a diminished overall quality of life.

Recognizing these signs and symptoms is crucial for identifying individuals who may be struggling with orthorexia nervosa. If you or someone you know exhibits these signs, it is important to seek professional help.

Risk Factors and Causes

Orthorexia nervosa, like other eating disorders, is influenced by various factors. Understanding these risk factors and causes can provide insights into the development of this condition. While the exact cause of orthorexia nervosa is not fully understood, several psychological, sociocultural, and personality-related factors contribute to its onset.

Psychological Factors

Psychological factors play a significant role in the development of orthorexia nervosa. Individuals with certain personality traits, such as perfectionism, obsessive-compulsive tendencies, and anxiety, may be more prone to developing an obsession with healthy eating. The desire for control and a need for order in their lives may manifest through rigid dietary rules and an extreme fixation on "clean" or "pure" foods.

Moreover, individuals with a history of other mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), or eating disorders, may be at a higher risk of developing orthorexia nervosa. These underlying psychological issues can contribute to an unhealthy preoccupation with food and a distorted relationship with eating.

Sociocultural Influences

Sociocultural influences also play a significant role in the development of orthorexia nervosa. In today's society, there is a strong emphasis on health, wellness, and the pursuit of an ideal body. The constant exposure to social media, where images of "perfect" bodies and "clean" eating are prevalent, can contribute to the development of unhealthy eating behaviors.

Moreover, societal norms and trends that promote restrictive diets, extreme fitness regimens, and the demonization of certain foods can further reinforce an individual's obsession with healthy eating. Peer pressure, societal expectations, and the desire to fit into a specific body ideal can all contribute to the development of orthorexia nervosa.

Personality Traits and Perfectionism

Individuals with perfectionistic tendencies may be more susceptible to developing orthorexia nervosa. The pursuit of perfection and an extreme need for control can manifest in their eating behaviors, leading to an obsessive focus on food quality and purity. These individuals often set strict rules and standards for themselves, making it challenging to deviate from their self-imposed dietary restrictions.

Moreover, individuals with orthorexia nervosa may have an intense fear of "toxins" or "impurities" in food, leading them to restrict their diet to only a few "safe" options. This restrictive eating pattern can further reinforce their desire for control and exacerbate their obsession with healthy eating.

Understanding the risk factors and causes associated with orthorexia nervosa is essential for early identification and intervention. By recognizing the psychological, sociocultural, and personality-related factors that contribute to this condition, healthcare professionals can provide appropriate support and treatment to individuals affected by orthorexia nervosa.

Diagnosis and Treatment

When it comes to addressing orthorexia nervosa, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential. In this section, we will explore the diagnostic criteria for orthorexia nervosa, the importance of seeking professional help, and the various treatment approaches available.

Diagnostic Criteria for Orthorexia Nervosa

Orthorexia nervosa does not have an officially recognized diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). However, experts have proposed several characteristics that can help identify and diagnose this condition. These criteria include:

  1. Obsession with Healthy Eating: An excessive preoccupation with the quality and purity of food, leading to rigid dietary rules and restrictions.
  2. Distorted Perception of Health: Placing an excessive emphasis on the association between food choices and personal health, often equating self-worth with adherence to strict dietary rules.
  3. Interference with Daily Life: The obsession with healthy eating significantly impacts social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
  4. Psychological Distress: Experiencing significant distress or anxiety when unable to adhere to self-imposed dietary rules.
  5. Lack of Flexibility: An inability to adapt or deviate from strict dietary rules, leading to increased rigidity and limited food choices.

It's important to note that a formal diagnosis should only be made by a qualified healthcare professional. If you suspect that you or someone you know may be struggling with orthorexia nervosa, seeking professional help is crucial.

Seeking Professional Help

If you believe you may be dealing with orthorexia nervosa, it's essential to consult a healthcare professional who can provide a comprehensive assessment and diagnosis. This may involve a mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist, who specializes in eating disorders.

During the evaluation process, the healthcare professional will consider the individual's symptoms, medical history, and any underlying psychological factors. They may also conduct interviews, psychological assessments, and screenings to gather a complete picture of the person's condition. Open and honest communication is vital to ensure an accurate diagnosis.

Treatment Approaches

Once diagnosed, treatment for orthorexia nervosa typically involves a multidisciplinary approach that addresses both the physical and psychological aspects of the disorder. The primary goals of treatment are to restore a healthy relationship with food, improve overall well-being, and address any underlying psychological factors.

Treatment approaches for orthorexia nervosa may include:

  1. Psychotherapy: Individual therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), can help individuals challenge and modify unhealthy thoughts and behaviors related to food and body image. It may also address underlying psychological factors contributing to the development and maintenance of orthorexia nervosa.
  2. Nutritional Counseling: Working with a registered dietitian who specializes in eating disorders can help individuals establish a balanced and flexible approach to eating. The focus is on reintroducing previously avoided foods and developing a healthy relationship with food.
  3. Medical Monitoring: In severe cases, medical monitoring may be necessary to address any physical complications resulting from malnutrition or other health-related consequences.
  4. Support Groups: Participating in support groups or group therapy sessions with individuals facing similar challenges can provide a sense of community, validation, and support throughout the recovery process.

It's important to remember that recovery from orthorexia nervosa is a journey that takes time and patience. Treatment plans should be personalized to address individual needs and circumstances. With the right support and professional guidance, it is possible to overcome orthorexia nervosa and achieve a healthier relationship with food and oneself.

Promoting a Healthy Relationship with Food

Developing a healthy relationship with food is essential for overall well-being. For individuals who have experienced or are at risk of developing orthorexia nervosa, it is crucial to foster a balanced approach to eating. Here are three key strategies for promoting a healthy relationship with food:

Finding Balance

Finding balance is essential when it comes to nutrition and overall health. It's important to remember that no single food or diet can provide all the nutrients our bodies need. Instead of fixating on rigid rules or restrictions, strive for a variety of foods that encompass different food groups, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.

Incorporating a wide range of foods into your diet ensures that you obtain the necessary nutrients while enjoying a diverse and satisfying eating experience. Aim for moderation and flexibility, allowing yourself to indulge in treats occasionally without guilt. This approach helps to prevent feelings of deprivation and supports a sustainable and balanced relationship with food.

Redefining "Healthy" Eating

Redefining the concept of "healthy" eating is essential for those recovering from or at risk of orthorexia nervosa. It involves shifting the focus from strict rules and perfectionism to a more holistic view of health and well-being. Instead of solely focusing on the nutritional value of foods, consider other factors that contribute to overall health, such as social connections, mental well-being, and physical activity.

Remember that food is not just about nourishment; it is also a source of pleasure, cultural heritage, and social connection. Allow yourself to enjoy a wide range of foods, including those that may not fit the traditional definition of "healthy," but bring joy and satisfaction to your life. Embracing flexibility and incorporating a variety of foods in your diet can help foster a healthier relationship with food.

Building a Supportive Environment

Building a supportive environment is crucial in promoting a healthy relationship with food. Surround yourself with individuals who support your journey towards balanced eating and who embrace a positive and non-judgmental attitude towards food and body image. Seek out community resources, support groups, or therapy options that can provide guidance and encouragement.

In addition to seeking support from others, it can also be helpful to educate yourself about orthorexia nervosa and its treatment options. Understanding the condition and its underlying causes can empower you to make informed decisions about your recovery.

By finding balance, redefining "healthy" eating, and building a supportive environment, individuals can work towards a healthier relationship with food. Remember, seeking professional help from healthcare providers or therapists who specialize in eating disorders is crucial in addressing orthorexia nervosa and promoting sustainable recovery.


In conclusion, orthorexia nervosa is a complex eating disorder that can have significant consequences. Seek professional help early on and find support from mental health professionals, dietitians, and support groups throughout the recovery process. Developing a healthy relationship with food is essential for overall well-being. Remember that recovery is a journey that takes time and patience, but with the right support, it is possible to overcome orthorexia nervosa and achieve a healthier relationship with food and oneself.